Gallery2020 Publishing under the auspices of Habitat Association

Galley2020 was first founded in 2001. It was originally a business that provided a service for graphic art. Its services were the provision of business card designs and form design, book covers etcetra.

Later, the owner of the business decided to to write a book. At this time a new name was made for the business. The new name was Gallery2020 Publishing.

After many hours over a 2 year period the book was completed and published under the new publishing business. The name of the book is: ‘Will the Real Melchizedek please step forward’ authored by David Holland in December 2008.

We are hoping that this site will be able to display this book and other works from this author and other authors.

Gallery2020 publishing has decided to join with the Habitat Association for arts and environment and publish in collaboration with this association.

The Association is a non profit group that is interested in promoting writing,  publishing and the arts. As part of its phylosophy  it is interested in writers who wish to write about human environments and social interactions.  This means that it has a strong interest in promoting and mentoring all art forms as well as science as it is applied to human existance.

THe above example of one of Gallery2020 published books is clearly a book based on Biblical text and as such a theological book. Habitat assocation also has interestes in this field as it relates to human social environments.

Gallery2020 is proud to be associated with Habitat Association for Arts and Environment and recommend other publishers, arts organisations and education organisations interested in the human environment or habitat become associated with them.

Betelguese: The super giant in the neighbourhood

I have written about this huge red giant star before. It is about 600 light years from earth and has a diameter almost as big as the orbit of jupiter.

Now I want to show how this star has been changing over the last few years.

Back in 2012 I was able to take a photo of this star with my camera at a low magnification.

Betelgeuse

Betelgeuse

This image is a lower ISO image showing even the less hot parts of the star but no gas around the star.

Betelgeuse High shutter speed

Betelgeuse High shutter speed

It showed the star as a red sphere with no gas around the star at all. Although this was as we see our sun, this to me seemed unusual as many stars that I was shooting at this low magnification seemed to have gas could around them.

Then during April 2013 I was able to take a new photo with a magnification of about 3000x which is below.

Betelguse DSC01373A

Clearly this shows a large explosion of gas from the star.

By December 2013 you can see that the gas cloud has moved around the star.

 

Betelgeuse DSC02478Then the gas had dispersed in a later photograph creating this distribution which has been enhanced from a brighter image of the star.

Betelguese DSC02443A

And later again about a month later the gas had become more even around the star.

Betelguese DSC02452A

As time went on into February 2014 we see that this gas eventually stabilised to cover most of the outside of the star .

Betelguse Feb 2014 DSC02892A

This demonstration shows that stars are very dynamic energy sources. Betelguese should never be trusted. It is a super giant nearing the end of its life and expected to go super nova at any time. When this happens at only 600 light years away will have an impact on earth by either lighting up the night sky to almost daylight or impacting communications around the world or affecting our outer layers of atmosphere temporarily or permanently.

By David Holland

New book studies man as God’s creation by David Holland

“Melchizedek, High Priest of God And Your destiny in this eternal priesthood” is a study on man-made in the image of God and through this Biblical knowledge encourages individual Christians to build their life on and be confident in the reality of who they are as a son or daughter of God and a follower of Jesus. It is grounded on the personage of Melchizedek, not just his background and personal life but how his example and role relates to Jesus and every Christian today.

This work is unique from other books on the subject of Melchizedek in that it uses what the author describes as a “forensic” approach to the Bible. “Melchizedek, High Priest of God And Your destiny in this eternal priesthood” is a must-read for Christian readers and those who are curious to find out if there is any substance to the Christian faith.

“Melchizedek, High Priest of God And Your destiny in this eternal priesthood”

By David Holland

David Holland helps Christians find their God-given purpose and how they can fit into the plan that God has for their lives based on the example of Melchizedek. “Melchizedek, High Priest of God And Your destiny in this eternal priesthood” (published by Xlibris Australia) is a Biblical study on the spiritual man as a creation of God.

About the Author

David Holland was born in the mid-1950s in Victoria, Australia. After completing studies in town planning and environmental management at university, he became more involved in church and was given the opportunity to start a theological course with Vision Christian College. He holds a diploma in ministry and a diploma in theology, both achieved with honors.

Softcover | 6 x 9in | 138 pages | ISBN 9781499005783

E-Book | 138 pages | ISBN 9781499005790

Available at Amazon and Barnes & Noble

 

Black holes in the universe

I would have never thought that I would be able to photograph a black hole with my own digital camera. But with some of these new super cameras it is now possible.

My Sony HX300 is capable of shooting stars with a 50x zoom, but with the internal zoom that increases the magnification to 3000x plus it is possible to see into the backgrounds behind the close stars and photograph galaxies and black holes.

Just lucky I guess, but in a corner of  one of my photographs I was able to photo enhance it through Photoshop and produce the following image.

It shows a few galaxies if you look closely, but one of the galaxies is shown in a curve. This is a classical distortion caused by a black hole. The black hole’s gravity is so intense that the space around the dense star is distorted and anything behind the black hole can be seem in this arc like distorted fashion.

This black hole is not at the centre of a galaxy but seems to be a rogue wandering black hole.

Black Whole in top right hand corner

Black Whole in top right hand corner

Identifying black wholes in the sky is almost impossible but because of the intense gravitational field around these stellar objects we often see a phenomenon called gravitational lensing. This effect bends the light from the distant galaxy around the intense gravity of the black hole in the for ground.

This affect of gravitational lensing can also be seen with other large masses of material. These gas clouds are non light emitting masses like black wholes but are not dense like black wholes. However, because they product some gravitational effects can also bend light from distant galaxies. Theory has it that a large part of the universe is made up of this dark matter. It is thought that much of the grey areas of the above photograph is related in some way to the effects of dark matter.

However, principally, the gravitational lensing effect in the right hand top corner of the photograph is identifying the location of a very massive object with a huge gravitational influence on the light from the distant galaxy causing the galaxy to look like an arc instead of an ellipse similar to the galaxy in the middle lower right hand corner of the same photograph.

 

by David Holland

 

Achernar the elliptical Star

When you start to investigate some of our stellar neighbours you get a variation of characteristics presented to you. I think that Achernar is probably one of the most surprisingly unusual stars we have this close to the sun.

It is 139 light years from us although this figure seems to be quite elastic as other references put it at 144 lys from us. It is a hot class of star B3 Vpe main sequence still fusing hydrogen into helium as our own sun is, but has a luminosity of 2900 to 5400 time the sun.

It has a temperature ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 K but sources give an average of between 14,500 to 19,000K.  So that means it is in the colour range of Blue-white.

Its shape is unusual as it is not spherical as our Sum. It is an oblate ellipse. Actually, if you were to take some notice of the photographs below it is even more irregular in shape that this description made by other commentators which say that it is the least spherical star in the Milky Way galaxy studied to date. Its proportions are roughly 12:7.7 as a ratio of height to girth.

It has a estimated mass per unit volume of some 6 to 8 times the Sun and 7 times the Diameter of the sun assuming this is about its minor axis.

Even though it is rotating at 225km/sec it still takes 2.2 earth days to make one revolution.

Achernar

Achernar

This Photo show the star emitting gas from the end we will arbitrarily call the both pole.

Since the star is rotating at such a fast speed it is loosing a great deal of mass particularly from its equator. But because the star is loosing mass it is probably spinning at an ever increasing rate of spin.

Let’s assume that the star was spherical at one time and a large body collated with it glancing the star in such a way as to transfer energy to the star to rotate at a new faster speed. At the time this happened the star may have lost some mass, but at the faster rotation it continued to loose mass because the centrifugal force for many of the heavier gas particles was not enough to be counteracted by the gravitational pull of the star.

This put the star into a cycle of loosing mass and spinning faster. The theory of the conservation of angular motion says that as a particle becomes closer to the centre of mass it will spin faster around the mass. If we consider each atom of helium produced by the fusion process to be in an atmosphere around the star, each will move away from the star by centrifugal forces. as this happens the star becomes thinner at the equator and as a result the energy in the mass of the remaining particles in the atmosphere have to remain at the same energy level as a result start to move more quickly. With a spin period of 2.2 days and a speed of 225Km/sec it is easy to calculate the stars girth. With this it is again possible to work out the forces involved in the escaping gas from the star.

If this process were to continue the star will become quite an unusual type of star.

Colour saturation showing dark areas

Colour saturation showing dark areas

This Photo of Achernar shows the north pole at the bottom of the frame and was taken 10 days later than the first at the same time of night. This means that this photo is looking at the reverse side of the star from the one above and the one below.

You now can see some of the very hot gas around the star that has escaped the star’s atmosphere.

In addition you are able to see darker areas on the stars surface. these are not cooler areas but areas that are not producing visible light or light the camera can see. they may be  highly magnetic areas similar to our own sun.

Also it is easy to see this star as even more irregular that a simple oblate ellipse.

Hot and cold part of the star

Hot and cold part of the star

Finally, this photo was manipulated by reducing the brightness and increasing the contrast. If more contrast were used you would see a much darker area in the equatorial areas of the star. This agrees with stella commentators who suggest that these areas are cooler that the poles. This photo again shows the north pole at the top of the photo.

Article by David Holland

Al Nair the 31st brightest star in the sky

Al Nair is a hot blue class B sub giant star. It is in the constellation of Gruis. At a temperature of 13,500 Kelvin it is emitting a blue-white light. With characteristics of 2.3 times as hot as our sun , 3.6 times the radius of the sun and 380 time the luminosity of the Sun, it is still considered to have similar chemistry to the Sun although in the last stages of the process of burning Hydrogen.

It is a wild sun, spinning at a rate of 236 km/second at its equator, which means that it rotates one full revolution in less than a day.

The photograph of the star below has court the star in such a way as to allow the viewer to see two faces in the swirling gases at its surface. One face is a devilish face facing to the right and down of in the frame and the other is a big brain alien face looking straight at the viewer.

Although there are two distinct faces, some people can only see one face. See it you are clever enough to see both faces

Alnair - Star in Gruis

Alnair – Star in Gruis

At 101 light years from earth the star is not in our close neighbourhood, one sixth of the way to Betelgeuse which is 640 light years away.

The photograph was taken in December 2013 by the Sony super camera HX300 with a 50 times optical magnification and a 200 times overall magnification. The camera specifications included a 20.4 mega pixel sensor. The frame was then magnified 8x internally in the camera and a photo internally recorded. Then a further magnification was made of approximately 2.7x. This is a total magnification of about 4300 times.

The Photo was takes on Manual with an ISO setting of 3200 and a shutter speed of about 1000th of a second.

Article by David Holland

Sirius from my Camera the Sony

Sirius, also called Alpha Canis Majoris or the Dog Star is visual magnitude 1.44, lower than any other star.

At 8.6 light-years distance, Sirius is one of the nearest stars to us after the sun.

Classified by astronomers as an “A” type star. It is much hotter than our sun, with a surface temperature of about 17,000 degrees F (the sun is about 10,000 degrees F). It is slightly more than twice the mass of the sun and just less than twice its diameter.

Sirius still puts out 26 times as much energy as our sun and is considered a normal (main sequence) star similar to our sun, meaning that it produces most of its energy by converting hydrogen into helium through nuclear fusion

At  26 times more luminous than the Sun, it has a significantly lower luminosity than other bright stars such as Canopus or Rigel. It has a white dwarf star close to it making the star a binary system. The system is between 200 and 300 million years old.

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The above photographs were taken with a Sony HX200V camera. This is a one piece camera with a 30 times zoom,  similar to the Fuji HS10 which is the camera I took the photos of Betelgeuse.

But instead of a 12 mega pixel detector, this camera has 18.2 Megapixels enabling more detail to zoom into.

In addition the camera has an option switch to do 60 times going into the optical range. When this option is enabled, a unique software application starts to operate giving at 60 time the same resolution as at 30 times. That is amazing.

With the flick of another option switch, the camera will zoom even further, up to 120 times.

This picture was taken at this magnification.

In addition, the light sensitivity of the camera is out of this world. Normally a photograph might be taken at 100 ASA on film. The Fuji HS10 can be cranked out to 6200 ASA. This camera has a light sensitivity of 12500 ASA at a magnification of 30 times.

Practically for this star we needed the switch for 120 times zoom  and at that magnification the camera will only deliver 3200 ASA at this setting.

However at that setting, if you can hold the camera on the star, you can take a still shot using the steady shot feature and a very high-speed shutter without a tripod. The brighter of the two shots was at about 1000 shutter speed at 320o ASA.

I found this too bright to see detail of the star so the second shot  the next day, was taken at about 1600 ASA and about 250th of a second.

One of the most powerful features of this camera for this type of work is that it can zoom in up to 8 times once the shot has been take and take another shot within the first shot. This second shot can be taken at the full 18.2 megapixels. As long as the picture stays inside the camera, the definition is preserved to a high degree. This is because the picture is not a JPG format yet. It is a special Sony format.

With the above photographs, I took them at 120 times, zoomed and then 8 times and then 7 times on the second photo within the camera. By my calculations this is about a 7000 time zoom photo.

Once out of the camera, I then manipulated the exposure, saturation and shadow intensity on software standard to Apple OS.

By David Holland

The Reluctant Sojourner

The Second Chapter of a book first published by Gallery2020 Publishing in 2008 is now published as an introduction to the book on the Habitat Association’s Book blog site under the name of the book “Will the Real Melchizedek please step forward.” Gallery2020 Publishing has now published the second edition of this book on ITunes as an ibook. The book was published in February 2013. A sample book can be found under the authors name or title of the book in the iTunes or ibook search engine. Presently the sample book and full version can only be accessed on iPads or iPhones.

This chapter brings some overlooked biblical scripture insights related to the family of the biblical patriarch Abraham. Abraham was the man who had a scriptural historic meeting with the mystical Melchizedek. But the overlooked aspects of the scriptures is that the first personage that God asked to go to the land of Canaan was Abraham’s father Terah. This is the story of Terah and his challengers in life.

The chapter introduces the concept of the jubilee year or year of release from dept and slavery. It shows how anniversaries of this year could have been a marker for both Terah and Abraham meeting the king Melchizedek.

Chapter 2

Here we pick up the story two hundred and twenty years after the flood, several years before Melchizedek meets Abram.

Terah was born.

He was the father of Abram. Abram is known today to most Christians, Jews and Muslims as Abraham the father of the faithful.

Terah lived in one of the major towns in the Chaldean Kingdom. He lived in an area that we recognize today as the ancient Fertile Crescent. It was the cradle of middle-eastern civilization, and was able to support a large population through its agriculture. It also created an ease of increase and abundance in agricultural produce and made kings and rulers rich and powerful.

This in turn made the populations of this fertile area very dependant on the production of the land rather than the provision of God.

Terah was a Shemite, a descendant of Noah through the line of Shem. Similar to Noah himself, who was the eighth generation from Adam’s son Seth and chosen by God to save human kind 200 or so years earlier, Terah was the eighth generation after the flood.

Read More…

by David Holland